Don't forget to complete this with your class-notes about the difference between animals and man, History and story, prehistory - history, etc
The human family is defined as Hominids. Hominids are characterized by several features:
The evolutionary design of man has always intrigued Anthropologists. Climatic changes have been responsible for the development of the characteristics of Hominids. These climatic changes began 24 million years ago.
Homo habilis (also known as " handy man ") used primative stone tools. The flat face and large molars of the Homo habilis resemble the australopithecus lineage. The brain size of the Homo habilis is about 700 cc (bigger than the Australopithecus). An " ape-like " body (long arms and a small body) structure was characteristic of the Homo habilis.
The first species to migrate from Africa during the Pleistocene glacial period was Homo erectus. This species was very common 1.8 - 1 million years ago. They inhabited the regions of southastern and eastern Asia until approximately 300 000 years ago. Europe, India, China and Indonesia show evidence of Homo erectus. (Wicander and Monroe 1993 )
Characteristics of Homo erectus are: a brain capacity of 800 - 1300 cc, a large face and thick skull, brow ridges and a forehead that recedes. "Tukana Boy" was an African discovery, which shows that Homo erectus had a similar body size to humans. The period that this boy lived in was 1.6 million years ago.
Being able to construct tools, such as hand axes, was within the capacity of Homo erectus. Homo erectus, according to some studies, made use of fire and occupied caves.
The evolution of Homo sapiens began approximately 200 000 - 300 000 years ago. The Homo sapiens structure is similar to the Homo erectus, but Homo sapiens skulls were rounder and larger. Their teeth and jaws were smaller. The Homo sapiens brain capacity was an impressive 1 350 cc, surprisingly the same size of todays humans.
The skull of a Neanderthal was not only low and long but had a heavy, notable brow. Its mouth projected above its chin.
In the region of South Western France in 1908, a Neanderthal skeleton was found. The image of " a brute who walked with a bent-kneed walk of an ape ," was incorrect. "; severe arthritis, a broken rib and diseased vertebrae" caused THAT Neanderthal to walk like that.
Caves and shelters made of rocks have been the discovery location of Neanderthal skeletons. Weapons and tools made from stone have also been found in these places. Archeology findings shows that the injured and dead were cared for and buried by Neanderthals.
Approximately 35 000 years ago, cro-magnons, moved into the Neanderthal region of what is today known as France. Within the time from 35 000 - 10 000 years ago the evolution of art and technological innovations becomes apparent. Cro-magnons used paints composed from manganese and iron oxides to paint the walls and ceilings of their caves in present France and Spain . Many of these beautiful paintings have been preseved and can still be seen. During the seasonal migration of herds, the Cro-magnons used hunting skills and tools to kill their prey. They managed to develop extremely advanced tools for hunting (possibly even a bow and arrow). The Cro-magnon dwelled primarily in caves or rock shelters in groups.
century after century, technology got better and better, and groups became more and more complex. They finally discovered how to grow vegetables and animals. They are our most direct antecesors.
First and most simple paintings (hands an a wall). Very frecuent all over the world
European buffalo from Altamira (Cantabria -SPAIN-). Probably one of the first magic or religious paintings. From upper Paleolitic
a group of two hunting animals with arcs and arrows. From the East of Spain.. Example of no-religious paintings but narrative.
a little prehistorical hummor